Dr Emma Bruce, Researcher, Research and Validation of IELTS

Emma's specific focus within the ARG is on research and validation of IELTS, including test centre and online modes of delivery. For her doctoral research Emma investigated the impact of time allowances in source-based writing assessment in the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context. Emma has over 25 years of experience working in the tertiary sector in the UK and Hong Kong, initially as a lecturer, and later as an EAP testing and assessment specialist.

Areas of expertise

  • Test development and validation
  • Academic Writing Assessment; Assessment of Integrated Skills
  • English for Academic Purposes
  • Online Language Testing


Bruce, E. (in progress). Time allowances in source-based writing: implications for EAP pedagogy and assessment design. In C. McDiarmid (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2021 BALEAP conference: Exploring pedagogical approaches in English for academic purposes.    

Bruce, E., & Stakounis, H. (in progress). The impact of Covid-19 on the UK EAP sector during the initial six months of the pandemic. In C. McDiarmid (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2021 BALEAP conference: Exploring pedagogical approaches in English for academic purposes.

Bruce, E., & Stakounis, H. (2023).  Narratives from the frontline: Evaluating the validity and longevity of technology-driven solutions to EAP assessment in the time of Covid-19. In K. Sadeghi (Ed.), Technology-assisted language assessment in diverse contexts: Lessons from the transition to online testing during Covid-19 (pp. 34-53). Routledge.                                                 

Clark, T., Bruce, E., & Dunlea J. (2022). IELTS One Skill Retake: A bias for best model. IELTS Research Group. https://www.ielts.org/-/media/research-reports/ielts-one-skill-retake---...

Bruce, E. & Hamp-Lyons, L. (2015). Opposing tensions of local and international standards for EAP writing programmes: Who are we assessing for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 18, 64-77.                               

Bruce, E. & Hamp-Lyons, L. (2015).  Looking for the academic voice: Assessing undergraduate writing. In. M. Kavanagh. & L. Robinson (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2013 BALEAP Conference: The Janus moment in EAP: Revisiting the past and building the future (pp. 63-76). Garnet.


  • PhD, University of Bedfordshire, 2020
  • MA Applied Linguistics & TESOL, University of Leicester, 1995
  • RSA Diploma, Teaching English as a Foreign Language, GLOSCAT, U.K., 1997