Burma, Myanmar, social enterprise, study, British Council
In Burma (Myanmar), “social enterprise is more demand-led than in other markets in the region [and] social sector organisations are very much rooted and responsive to the needs of the communities they are there to serve,” wrote Prof Dr Aung Tun Thet in his preface to our 2013 mapping study of social enterprise in that country ©

British Council

This collection includes our report on social enterprise and job creation in Sub-Saharan Africa, our 12-country survey of social enterprise in higher education, and our report on UK social enterprises that trade and franchise overseas. You'll also find some of the earliest social enterprise mapping and policy landscape studies that we and our partners produced.

Innovation and resilience: a global snapshot of social enterprise responses to Covid-19

Social enterprises have shown resilience and agility in response to the pandemic's severe challenges, offering new products, services, and trading models to support their communities. This global survey explores these responses along with the uneven impact on different demographic groups and variations across regions. It also looks at support provision, growth expectations and implications on social enterprises as generators of employment. (Adobe PDF 528KB)

Social enterprise and job creation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Based on research conducted across ten African countries and published in Sep 2020, this report finds that social enterprises are more likely than traditional SMEs to provide employment and training opportunities for youth, women as well as poor and vulnerable people who are likely to be hit hardest by the economic fallout of Covid-19. (Adobe PDF 2.64 MB)

Social Enterprise in a Global Context: the role of Higher Education Institutions

This is the first major international study to examine how and why so many universities and other higher education institutions around the world are collaborating and engaging with social enterprises. It comprises this global report as well as the 12 country and territory reports below. (Adobe PDF 792KB)

Social enterprise and higher education: 12 country and territory reports

These studies examine the benefits and challenges of partnership between higher education institutions and social enterprises in 12 countries and territories. They complement Social enterprise in a global context: the role of higher education institutions, our global report that analysed data from all 12 of these reports.

Exporting Social Enterprise: A survey of overseas trade by UK social enterprises

The British Council and Social Enterprise UK teamed up to publish, in 2014, this study which was the first in the UK to specifically examine overseas trade and franchising by UK social enterprises. It looks at where and how UK social enterprises export, provides case studies, and offers recommendations to support the growth of such overseas trade. (Adobe PDF 5.34MB)


Social Enterprise in ...


This 2013 survey examines the social enterprise landscape in Burma (Myanmar) just as democracy was being restored after decades of military rule. The report notes that the country has a strong civil society and provides examples of successful social enterprises operating at scale but also that social enterprise was then a relatively new, if increasingly popular, concept. (Adobe PDF 4.17MB)


Published in 2014 with Social Enterprise UK and the Moroccan Centre for Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship, this report notes that awareness of social enterprise was then fairly limited, that a significant proportion of Moroccan social enterprises focus on the artisan and handicraft sector, and that Moroccan social enterprises seek to advance a range of social purposes, chief among which are improving a community, empowering women and providing education and training. (Adobe PDF 3.84MB)


This 2016 study provides an overview of Pakistan’s emerging but rapidly growing social enterprise sector. It reviews the policy and regulatory environment in which social enterprises operate, their approaches to addressing needs, and the key barriers to, and drivers of, their growth. It also offers suggestions on how various stakeholders could build a more supportive framework for the sector. (Adobe PDF 967KB) 

See also the more recent State of Social Enterprise in Bangladesh, Ghana, India and Pakistan

The Philippines

Social enterprise is vibrant and growing in the Philippines and seems likely to have much wider impact in coming years, concludes this report from 2015. See also our more in-depth and more recent State of Social Enterprise in the Philippines produced in partnership with the European Union, the United Nations ESCAP, Social Enterprise UK and other partners. (Adobe PDF 6.11MB)


Dating to 2012, this report provides a short history of social enterprise in Vietnam. It also introduces the experience of social enterprise in the UK and other Asian countries and offers recommendations to support the growth of social entrepreneurship in Vietnam. See also our 2019 Social Enterprise in Vietnam survey. (Adobe PDF 3.58MB) 

The Social Enterprise Policy Landscape in ...


This report surveys government activity and policies that influence social enterprises in Bangladesh and offers recommendations on building a more supportive environment for the sector, notably in the areas of finance, skills development, and awareness raising. (Adobe PDF 2.55MB)

See also the more recent State of Social Enterprise in Bangladesh, Ghana, India and Pakistan from 2016.


This 2015 landscape study provides an overview of social enterprise and sector support organisations in Ghana, examines the policy and social context for social entrepreneurship, and concludes that opportunities abound for social enterprise in Ghana. (Adobe PDF 1.82MB)

See also the more recent State of Social Enterprise in Bangladesh, Ghana, India and Pakistan.


India has seen a rapid expansion of social enterprise activity in the past decade but this has occurred with little government support. This study with ODI and Social Enterprise UK outlines practical steps and priority areas for engagement by the social enterprise sector with India’s state and national governments. (Adobe PDF 1.43MB)

See also our State of Social Enterprise in Bangladesh, Ghana, India and Pakistan.