Cultural relations graphic design depicting icons of the world, buildings, speech bubbles and map points
The Cultural Relations Collection brings together thematic essays reflecting on the theory and practice of international cultural relations. Image ©

British Council

The Cultural Relations Collection explores the work of the British Council and reflects on our approach to cultural relations around the globe. These essays also discuss the theory and practice of cultural relations more broadly. 

The Cultural Relations Collection essays are a starting point for discussion. They look afresh – with a common cultural relations lens – across global developments in a range of thematic areas. These include arts, science, higher education, schools, civil society, exams and assessment, and the English language.

All available essays are accessible below. Additional essays will be added over time.

The Collection


Cities and everyday ‘endotic’ cultural relations

Will Haynes explores the particular type of cultural relations generated by people going about their daily lives in urban environments, bringing together analysis of ordinary encounters in three global cities – Cape Town, Guangzhou and Rome. The essay argues that, while hyper-localised, these ‘endotic’ interactions reflect and influence intercultural encounters at a global level. It highlights how cultural relations is not a static experience, but a fluid one.

Contemporary festivals in Sub-Saharan Africa

Poppy Spowage shows how arts festivals across the African continent are innovating in response to the COVID-19 pandemic – not only out of economic necessity, but also to find new ways to meet their creative goals and wider ambitions. The essay considers both the personal and the socioeconomic impacts of culture, arguing that both have significant value and warning that too much focus on the latter risks damaging the former. 

Astronomy as a catalyst for cultural relations

Hannah Dalgleish looks at astronomy as a global scientific endeavour, exploring the culture of astronomers and their collaborations, and how these relationships have developed over time. The essay shows how astronomy has generated intercultural encounters throughout its history. It goes on to explore how the discipline has emerged today as a site for international development co-operation. It considers what this tells us about cultural relations, with a particular focus on South Africa and the Development in Africa with Radio Astronomy programme. 

Science communication and digital cultural relations during a pandemic

Gary Kerr draws on the example of the British Council partnership programme FameLab to explore the notion and nature of science communication as a form of cultural relations. The essay considers how the programme builds cultural connections and understanding by the global sharing of knowledge and ideas. It goes on to address how these cultural relations goals and results were affected by the rapid shift to digital delivery of the programme in 2020 following the COVID-19 pandemic. 


Debating and intercultural relations in Jordan 

Floresca Karanàsou and Elie Gemayel explore the value of debate for young Jordanians in connecting locally and globally with different ideas and youth in neighbouring countries and the UK. They call for further examination of the resonance of debating, its role in Jordanian society and the approaches of foreign organisations working with young people in the region. 

How local contexts adapt Shakespeare

Chidi Ezegwu provides a conceptual and empirical overview of how local contexts translate and creolise Shakespeare. With an analysis of Shakespeare’s 'Two Noble Kinsmen' in Nigerian Pidgin English, the essay brings together ideas concerning public meaning, art and syncretism. It contributes to current debates about the role and status of language in post-colonial cultural relations. 

The comparative and historical impact of the UK’s cultural relations in Myanmar

Su Lin Lewis presents a historical and comparative perspective on the impact of the UK’s soft power and cultural relations efforts in Myanmar, examining five phases of British engagement with civil society in the country. The essay demonstrates the subtle ways in which cultural influence and attraction operate over time within a specific regional and geopolitical context. 


The English language in cultural relations

Martin Rose provides a detailed analysis of the factors that enable intercultural relations through the English language. While acknowledging the potentially dominating power of English as a global language, the essay shows how trust and reciprocal cultural relations can nevertheless arise. It also argues that, with the rise of digital communication and artificial intelligence, modes and manners of communication in English are increasingly moving beyond anyone’s control.

English language assessment as cultural relations 

Barry O’Sullivan and Mina Patel draw on the academic literature and recent evaluations to reflect on English language assessment as a cultural relations activity. They argue that a cultural relations approach can be traced in both the British Council’s commercial and charitable work in assessment since 1941. They show how, by engaging with individual examination candidates, as well as with education ministries, our activities have built trust and respect.

The role of the UK in strengthening global school systems

Psyche Kennett and Jill Knight highlight how national cultural institutes such as the British Council connect not just with global educational goals but intensively with national priorities. The essay provides empirical evidence at a cross-national level from 28 countries where we operate and analyses specific cases from three countries in greater depth. 

The impact of Going Global conferences on international higher education

Murray Saunders and John McGovern offer an external evaluation of the British Council’s annual Going Global Conference, which has brought together leaders in international higher education since 2004. The essay uses the Going Global conference case study to argue that higher education is a soft power asset. It also shows how Going Global has evolved over time to create a space for mutual learning and exchange. This has involved exhibiting central qualities of cultural relations: reciprocity and exchange among a diversity of players leading to mutual benefit. 

The cultural turn in international development

JP Singh examines the place of culture in international development activity. He argues that culture as a final product is at the root of cultural diplomacy, while international development interventions focus on the process. The essay posits that both process and product are part of cultural relations. It gives analytical centre stage to initiatives and responses from countries and societies that are targets of soft power or recipients of development aid. It shifts the emphasis from external actors and institutions to the cultural mores and expressions that overlay international development discourse and practice.

Introductory essay: cultural relations and our relationship to foreign policy goals

JP Singh reviews the ways the concept of cultural relations has evolved, and its relationship to the foreign policy goals of the UK government. It reviews our contributions from two perspectives covered in the essays in this collection. These are the ability of the British Council to work with societies and organisations culturally, and the diverse methodologies that can be employed to reflect on and assess the impact of such efforts. 

See also